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ANALYSIS OF INSTANTANEOUS SHUT-IN PRESSURE IN …

to extract natural gas and oil trapped in shale formation is hydraulic fracturing. To produce at economical rates, this treatment technology has been used over the 50 past years. For efficient extraction of gas and oil from shale formations, understanding of hydraulic …

Hydraulic fracturing simulation technology of shale gas ...

2020-8-20 · Hydraulic fracturing simulation technology of shale gas reservoir and application of extended finite element method Ying-kun ZHANG 1 ( ),Shang-bin CHEN 1, 2 ( ),Xue-yuan LI 1,Hui-jun WANG 1

A Policymaker''s Guide I

2012-6-6 · Hydraulic fracturing—also known as "fracking"—is an oil and gas extraction method in which hydraulic pressure is used to create fractures in shale rock. Pressurized liquids—usually a mixture of 99.5 percent water and sand and 0.5 percent chemical additives—are pumped deep underground to help release trapped gas.2 Fracking allows for

Dry screening and crushing of oil shale waste rock, cycle ...

Download scientific diagram | Dry screening and crushing of oil shale waste rock, cycle of the test. from publication: Valgma, I.; Leiaru, M.; Karu, V.; Iskül, R. (2012). Sustainable mining ...

Fracking 101 | NRDC

2019-4-19 · Modern high-volume hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to enable the extraction of natural gas or oil from shale and other forms of "tight" rock (in other words, impermeable rock ...

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 101

2014-10-15 · Hydraulic fracturing is indeed relevant to Indiana and has been since it began to be used in the early 1950''s. Indiana oil and gas operators continue to utilize hydraulic fracturing to complete wells when they believe the method will increase the productivity of a well. However, not every well is completed using this method.

New Analytical Method to Evaluate Casing Integrity during ...

An accurate analysis of casing stress distribution and its variation regularities present several challenges during hydraulic fracturing of shale gas wells. In this paper, a new analytical mechanical-thermal coupling method was provided to evaluate casing stress. For this new method, the casing, cement sheath, and formation (CCF) system was divided into three parts such as initial stress field ...

Hydraulic Fracture Height Predictions in Laminated Shale ...

2016-2-1 · Laminated structures in shale formations typically result in anisotropic elastic properties, including Young''s modulus and the Poisson ratio, which highly influence hydraulic fracturing treatment execution. The lamina can confine the hydraulic fracture height growth and they sometimes act as weak interfaces for potential fracture propagation path.

A risk-based approach for managing hydraulic fracturing ...

2021-4-30 · On the basis of this rationale, we developed a risk-based, red-light–threshold approach for the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas ().The Eagle Ford formation has hosted some of the largest confirmed cases of hydraulic fracturing–induced earthquakes in the United States (), albeit somewhat complicated by also having substantial extraction-related seismicity ().

Fracking | What It Is and Its Effects on the Environment

2021-11-22 · Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is an efficient way for energy companies to extract gas and oil from rock that''s deep underground. Fracking injects high-pressure solutions of water, chemicals and sand into these shale deposits to release the oil and …

Production Decline Analysis and Hydraulic Fracture …

2021-11-8 · Production Decline Analysis and Hydraulic Fracture Network Interpretation Method for Shale Gas with Consideration of Fracturing Fluid Flowback Data Jianfeng Xiao,1 Xianzhe Ke,2 and Hongxuan Wu1 1CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610051, China 2China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China

A multi-scale flow model for production performance ...

2018-7-30 · Shale gas reservoirs can be divided into three regions, including hydraulic fracture regions, stimulating reservoir volume regions (SRV regions), and outer stimulating reservoir volume regions ...

Biodegradation in Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing ...

Hydraulic fracturing is a method of oil and gas extraction from shale in which substantial volumes of water return to the surface containing chemicals and microorganisms. This paper begins to address the microbial composition and aqueous chemistry and the potential for …

XFEM-based numerical modeling of well performance ...

2021-6-1 · The outline of the manuscript is structured as follows. The problem formulation and solution strategy including the governing equations, the extended finite element method, the mathematical description of the propped fracture, as well as mechanical models of proppant crushing and shale creep are presented in Section 2.

ANALYTIC EVALUATION METHOD OF FRACTAL EFFECTIVE …

2021-9-6 · The stronger the heterogeneity, the smaller ESRV is. The ESRV size of a fractured well in shale gas reservoirs is only 52.11% of SRV size when the fractal index equals to 0.6. The ESRV-FEM presented in this paper is expected to provide an effective method for the evaluation of the ESRV of fractured wells in unconventional gas reservoirs.

Biodegradation in Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing ...

2021-10-4 · bined with precision extraction methods, has posi-tioned shale gas in the forefront of a potential boom of natural gas exploitation worldwide. However, the opportunity shale gas brings also brings many ques - tions yet unanswered, not least about its extraction method of hydraulic fracturing or fracking. These questions include the climate ...

Automatic diagnosis method for wellhead pressure curve …

What is claimed is: 1. An automatic diagnosis method for wellhead pressure curve of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas horizontal well, includes steps of: step S1, establishing a conversion model for bottom hole net pressure of shale gas fracture network using fluid dynamics theory, comprising steps of: sub-step A: collecting data, comprising: wellbore structure parameters, wellbore parameters ...

Hydraulic Fracturing‐Induced Seismicity

2020-6-13 · Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a technique that is used for extracting petroleum resources from impermeable host rocks. ... 2.1 The Muskwa Shale in the Horn River Basin, Canada. ... Walker, and Cassidy using the single-station method are not plotted. (b) Time series of cumulative monthly seismic moment (M 0) and monthly injected volume for all ...

(PDF) Hydraulic Fracturing Process

2021-11-16 · Hydraulic fracturing is extensively used to develop unconventional reservoirs, such as tight gas, shale gas and shale oil reservoirs. These reservoirs are …

Preliminary Studies on the Proppant Embedment in Baltic ...

2021-3-3 · Deng S, Li H, Ma G, Huang H, Li X (2014) Simulation of shale-proppant interaction in hydraulic fracturing by the discrete element method. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 70:219–228. Article Google Scholar Denney D (2012) Fracturing-fluid effects on shale and proppant embedment. Soc Petrol Eng J Petrol Technol 64:59–61.

New Analytical Method to Evaluate Casing Integrity …

2019-7-30 · New Analytical Method to Evaluate Casing Integrity during Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale Gas Wells Jun Li, 1 Xueli Guo, 1,2 Gonghui Liu, 1,3 Shuoqiong Liu, 2 and Yan Xi 1

An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation ...

Hydraulic fracturing has become a very common and widespread technique, especially in North America, due to technological advances that have allowed extracting natural gas from so-called unconventional reservoirs (tight sands, coal beds and shale formations).

The intensification of the water footprint of hydraulic ...

Throughout this transition, the water use for hydraulic fracturing and wastewater production in major shale gas and oil production regions has increased; from 2011 to 2016, the water use per well increased up to 770%, while flowback and produced water volumes generated within the …

A new method to measure propped fracture width and ...

2019-10-1 · Crushing of sand proppant due to stress decreases as the proppant size decreases and the proppant concentration increases. Abstract. Hydraulic fracturing is the main stimulation method used to economically produce from shale formations. The method requires the injection of a fracturing fluid at a pressure, which is high enough to fracture the ...

11.25 Clay Processing

2015-9-10 · rification point below 1100°C (2000°F). Shale is a laminated sedimentary rock that is formed by the consolidation of clay, mud, or silt. Common clay and shale are composed mainly of illite or chlorite, but also may contain kaolin and montmorillonite. Most domestic clay is mined by open-pit methods using various types of equipment, including

Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method for Simulation …

2015-9-22 · Hydraulic fracturing is widely used in the exploitation of unconventional gas (such as shale gas).Thus, the study of hydraulic fracturing is of particular importance for petroleum industry. The combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) proposed by Munjiza is an innovative numerical technique to capture progressive damage and failure processes in rock. However, it cannot model the ...

Owning the Center of the Earth

2019-11-5 · Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as "fracking," is used to release oil and gas from "tight" shale and other sedimentary . 12 . rocks. Though seemingly simple, hydraulic fracturing involves several . 13 steps. Prior to hydraulic fracturing, a well is drilled . vertically. 14. Once the well